What are Text Dependent Questions?

What are Text-Dependent Questions (TDQs) and how do they relate to Close Reading?
 Text-dependent questions are questions that can only be answered by the student referring back to the text being read. Students must often read closely and analyze the text to sufficiently respond to text-dependent questions. Close reading involves reading the text multiple times as a means to deepen comprehension. Once students find evidence in the text that supports the question being asked, he/she will write a response to a TDQ using this textual evidence. 
 These question stems may be helpful to students as they learn to respond to text-dependent questions: