• COMMA RULES!

     

    Rule 1:            Use a comma BEFORE a coordinating conjunction (and, but,

                            for, nor, or, so, yet) in a compound sentence.

                            Eg:      Alex Eisen and Lauren Kelly left the party, but Emily

                                        Hoppe and Arvind G. remained to talk to Lauren S.

                                        And Perrine.

     

    Rule 2:            Use a comma AFTER an introductory word, phrase, or

                            Clause that comes before the main clause in a sentence.

                           

                            Eg Word:        Strangely, Vortex Terrill and Anderson R. enjoy

                                                    talking to themselves in language arts class.

     

                            Eg Phrase:     Despite Kaitlyn K.’s  high hopes, neither she

                                                    nor Graham G. will escape taking the spelling

                                                    test on Friday.

     

                            Eg Clause:      Because Lindsay T. was ill, she suffered great

                                                    Grief when she attempted her make-up work.

     

     

     

    Rule 3:            Use commas around words, phrases, or clauses which are

                            NONESSENTIAL to the meaning of the sentence.

     

                            Eg Word:        Mrs. D. is attempting, faithfully, to have

                            to have patience with John R. and Cadie N. chatting in

                            class.

     

                            Eg Phrase:     Sean Moss, browsing happily through the

                            magazine, found the perfect article on Kung Fu cooking

                            for his Toastmaster speech.

     

                            Eg Clause:      Will Ellis, who has often had his conduct card

                            initialed, is now a model student.

    Rule 4:            Use commas between items in a series or coordinate

                            adjectives(not cumulative adjectives).

     

                            Eg Words:      Maren and Sydney were talking, laughing,

                            and throwing spit wads at Jagger and Clark.

     

                            Eg Phrase:     As Mrs. D. taught the class, Ciara J. and

                            Sheane F. chewed gum, listened to Toby Keith on their

                            i-pods, and gulped down Gator Aid.

     

                            Eg Clause:      Though Emy Stevens and Giulia Seghezzo

                            talk incessantly, trash up their area, and leave their

                            chairs out, Mrs. D. cares for them dearly.

     

                            Eg Coordinate Adjectives: Alexis K. and McLain Driver

                            Are warm, gentle, kind students.

     

                            Eg cumulative Adjectives: Matt Lewis and Jared Falk                                         ordered a rich chocolate layer cake.           

     

     

     

     

     

    Rule 5:            Use commas before and after direct quotes within a                                              sentence.

     

                            Eg:      “To make the right impression when cheering at

                            games,” said Emilie Fromm and Megan Collins, “girls should

                            always behave like ladies.”

     

                            Eg:      Melissa Harnois and Annie Andrews yelled, “Give the                              pom-poms back, you jerks!” as they chased after Jacob                           Gerster and Joshua Schwarz.

     

     

     

     

    Rule 6:            Use a comma before an afterthought or contrasting

                            element.         

     

                            Eg Afterthought:       Carter Doyle feels that he plays football

                            well, even better at times than Arman Y. or Assesandro B.

     

                            Eg Contrasting Element:      Anna S.and Sierra Miller want to

                            models because of their awesome height, not just to make

                            gobs of money.

     

     

     

     

     

    Rule 7:            Use commas to set off geographical names, dates, and

                            professional titles, and addresses.

     

                            Eg Geographical:      Sam Malpiedi says she’s from Raleigh,

                            North Carolina, but everyone knows she’s really from

                            Honolulu, Hawaii.

     

                            Eg Dates:       Jackie Binsfield and Nicole Darian were ticketed

                            for excessive bike speeding on August 21, 2007, but they

                            both pleaded innocent to the charges.

     

                            Eg Titles:       Dr. Robert Knowlton, M.D. and Dr. Adam Clare,               Ph.D., will be speaking to the class about the stress                                               that causes nose bleeds and how to treat them                                                       without getting the attention of peers.

     

                            Eg Addresses:            Samantha Shapiro and Callie V. both seem

                            to live at 11130 E. Cholla Street, Scottsdale, Arizona                               85259.

     

     

     

     

     

    Rule 8:            Use commas to set off a direct address, the words yes or

                            No, interrogative tags, and most interjections.

     

                            Eg Direct Address:    Forgive us, Dr. Harcus, for

                            doubting  your vast knowledge of science.

     

                            Eg Yes,No:     No, Patrick D., I can not take that grade

                            off your progress report.

     

                            Eg Int. Tags:  Jonathan A. and Chris B. are certainly

                            great ping pong players, aren’t they?

     

                            Eg Mild Interj:           Well, Damon M. will need a miracle to

                            get out of Mr. Eppley’s science project.