• Language Arts Essentials

    4 Types of Sentences:
    Asking (Interrogative): Did the dog run down the street?
    Telling/Statement (Declarative): The dog ran down the street.
    Commanding (Imperative): Watch the dog run down the street.
    Exclaiming (Exclamatory): Look out for the dog running down the street!
    Noun: Person, Place, or Thing
    Common nouns: dog, teacher, zoo
    Proper nouns: Rover, Mr. Hayes, Atlanta Zoo
    Subject / Predicate:
    The subject tells the "who or what" in the sentence; the predicate tells you what the subject did:
    Example: The dog and cat ran down the street.
    Subject: The dog and cat
    Predicate: ran down the street.
    Adjective: An adjective describes (modifies) a noun.
    Example: The shaggy dog and the furry cat ran down the winding road.
    Adverb: An adverb describes (modifies) the verb.
    Example: The shaggy dog and the furry cat ran quickly down the winding road.
    do + not = don't
    won't = will + not
    Articles are "special" adjectives that describe a noun - they imply that the number is one (and a number is an adjective).
    Articles are: a, an, the
    I see a tree. ( the word 'a' implies one tree).
    Do you see the dog? (the word 'the' implies one dog).
    An elephant waded in the river. (the word 'an' implies one elephant).
    Pronoun:A pronoun replaces a noun in a sentence.
    Pronouns: he, she, it, they, we, I, you, us, we, our, ours, their, theirs, him, his, her, hers, them, its, mine, my, your, yours

    Example: The girl and boy went to a movie. THEY went to a movie
    Homophone/homonym/homograph: Words that often sound the same, but have different meanings, different sounds, and/or usually different spellings. We will focus mainly on homophones.
    Homophones are words that are spelled different and have different meanings, but they sound the same.
    Examples: ate/eight; by/buy/bye; to/too/two; your/you're; their/there/they're
    Homographs are words that sound the same, have the same spelling, but sound different:
    Example: wound/wound. I wound a bandage around his wound.
    Homonyms are words that are spelled the same, sound the same, but have different meanings:
    die (as in death) and die (as in a template used to cut things)
    bow (to bend at the waist) and bow (the front of a boat)
    bow (like a ribbon) and bow (used with an arrow)
    Verb:A verb is a word that shows the action in a sentence - it shows what someone or something is being or doing. A verb is usually the first word in the predicate:
    The dog ran down the street and jumped on the curb.
    Irregular verbs do not show action but are still the predicate. We also call them "Linking Verbs" because they link the subject and predicate together:
    Examples: are, is, was, has, have, do, does, want, were, being, been, am, will
    We are here. She will wait for me.

    Synonyms: Synonyms are words that are similar in meaning:

    small, little, tiny
    big, huge, large, enormous, gigantic
    Antonyms: Antonyms are words that are opposites:
    hot, cold
    inside, outside
    wide, narrow
    short, tall
    under, over