• Georgia Department of Education

     Human Services Career Cluster

    Food Science Course Number: 20.4181

    Course Description: Food science integrates many branches of science and relies on the application of the rapid advances in technology to expand and improve the food supply. Students will evaluate the effects of processing, preparation, and storage on the quality, safety, wholesomeness, and nutritive value of foods. Building on information learned in Nutrition and Wellness and Chemistry, this course illustrates scientific principles in an applied context, exposing students to the wonders of the scientific world. Related careers will be explored.



    Career Standard 1 HUM-FS-1

    The following standard is included in all CTAE courses adopted for the Career Cluster/Pathways.

    Teachers should incorporate the elements of this standard into lesson plans during the course. The topics listed for each element of the standard may be addressed in differentiated instruction matching the content of each course. These elements may also be addressed with specific lessons from a variety of resources. This content is not to be treated as a unit or separate body of knowledge but rather integrated into class activities as applications of the concept.

     Standard: Demonstrate employability skills required by business and industry.

    The following elements should be integrated throughout the content of this course.

    1.1 Communicate effectively through writing, speaking, listening, reading, and interpersonal abilities.

    Person-to-Person Etiquette ,Telephone and Email Etiquette ,Cell Phone and Internet Etiquette, Communicating At Work ,Listening ,Interacting with Your Boss, Telephone Conversations ,Using Blogs ,Improving Communication Skills, Reasons, Benefits, and Barriers ,Interacting with Subordinates ,Barriers to Phone conversations ,Using Social Media, Effective Oral Communication ,Listening, Strategies Interacting with Co-workers ,Making and Returning Calls ,Effective Written Communication ,Ways We Filter What We Hear ,Interacting with Suppliers, Making Cold Calls, Effective Nonverbal Skills ,Developing a Listening Attitude ,Handling Conference Calls ,Effective Word Use, Show You Are Listening ,Handling Unsolicited Calls ,Giving and Receiving Feedback ,Asking Questions, Obtaining Feedback ,Getting Others to Listen, Nonverbal Communication, Written Communication, Speaking, Applications and Effective Résumés, Communicating Nonverbally,Writing Documents Using Language Carefully, Completing a Job Application, Reading Body Language and mixed Messages, Constructive Criticism in Writing, One-on-One Conversations ,Writing a Cover Letter, Matching Verbal and Nonverbal communication ,Small Group Communication ,Things to Include in a Résumé ,Improving Nonverbal Indicators, Large Group Communication, Selling Yourself in a Résumé . Nonverbal Feedback, Making Speeches, Terms to Use in a Résumé ,Showing Confidence ,Nonverbally Involving the Audience ,Describing Your Job Strengths, Showing Assertiveness, Answering Questions ,Organizing Your Résumé ,Visual and Media Aids ,Writing an Electronic Résumé ,Errors in Presentation, Dressing Up Your Résumé

    1.2 Demonstrate creativity by asking challenging questions and applying innovative procedures and methods.

    Teamwork and Problem Solving ,Meeting Etiquette ,Thinking Creatively ,Preparation and Participation in Meetings, Taking Risks, Conducting Two-Person or Large Group Meetings, Building Team Communication ,Inviting and Introducing Speakers ,Facilitating Discussions and Closing, Preparing Visual Aids ,Virtual Meetings

    1.3 Exhibit critical thinking and problem solving skills to locate, analyze and apply information in career planning and employment situations.

    Problem Solving, Customer Service ,The Application Process, Interviewing Skills ,Finding the Right Job, Transferable Job Skills ,Gaining Trust and Interacting with Customers, Providing Information, Accuracy and Double Checking, Preparing for an Interview ,Locating Jobs and Networking, Becoming a Problem Solver ,Learning and Giving Customers What They Want, Online Application Process, Questions to Ask in an Interview, Job Shopping Online Identifying a Problem, Keeping Customers Coming Back, Following Up After Submitting an Application, Things to Include in a Career Portfolio ,Job Search ,Websites ,Becoming a Critical Thinker, Seeing the Customer’s Point, Effective Résumés: Traits Employers are Seeking ,Participation in Job Fairs ,Managing ,Selling Yourself and the Company, Matching Your Talents to a Job, Considerations Before Taking a Job ,Searching the Classified Ads, Handling Customer Complaints ,When a Résumé Should be Used ,Using Employment Agencies, Strategies for Customer Service, Landing an Internship ,Staying Motivated to Search.

    1.4 Model work readiness traits required for success in the workplace including integrity, honesty, accountability, punctuality, time management, and respect for diversity.

    Workplace Ethics, Personal Characteristics ,Employer Expectations ,Business Etiquette, Communicating at Work, Demonstrating Good Work Ethic ,Demonstrating a Good Attitude ,Behaviors Employers Expect ,Language and Behavior, Handling Anger ,Behaving Appropriately ,Gaining and Showing Respect ,Objectionable Behaviors, Keeping Information Confidential, Dealing with Difficult, Coworkers Maintaining Honesty, Demonstrating Responsibility, Establishing Credibility, Avoiding Gossip ,Dealing with a Difficult Boss ,Playing Fair, Showing Dependability ,Demonstrating Your Skills ,Appropriate Work Email ,Dealing with Difficult Customers ,Using Ethical Language ,Being Courteous, Building Work Relationships ,Cell Phone Etiquette ,Dealing with Conflict,  Showing Responsibility, Gaining Coworkers’ Trust, Appropriate Work Texting ,Reducing Harassment, Persevering Understanding ,Copyright ,Respecting Diversity ,Handling Criticism, Social Networking, Making Truthfulness a Habit, Showing Professionalism ,Leaving a Job Ethically .

    1.5 Apply the appropriate skill sets to be productive in a changing, technological, diverse workplace to be able to work independently and apply team work skills.

    Expected Work Traits, Teamwork ,Time Management ,Demonstrating Responsibility, Teamwork Skills,Managing Time ,Dealing with Information Overload ,Reasons Companies Use Teams ,Putting First Things First, Transferable Job Skills ,Decisions Teams Make ,Juggling Many Priorities ,Managing Change ,Team Responsibilities ,Overcoming Procrastination ,Adopting a New Technology ,Problems That Affect Teams ,Organizing Workspace and Tasks, Expressing Yourself on a Team ,Staying Organized ,Giving and Receiving Constructive Criticism ,Finding More Time ,Managing Projects, Prioritizing Personal and Work Life.

    1.6 Present a professional image through appearance, behavior and language.

    On-the-Job Etiquette, Person-to-Person Etiquette ,Communication,Etiquette, Presenting Yourself Using Professional Manners ,Meeting Business Acquaintances ,Creating a Good Impression, Looking Professional, Introducing People ,Meeting People for the First Time, Keeping Phone Calls Professional, Dressing for Success, Appropriate Dress, Showing Politeness, Proper Use of Work Email ,Showing a Professional Attitude ,Business Meal Functions ,Proper Use of Cell Phone ,Using Good Posture ,Behavior at Work Parties ,Proper Use in Texting, Presenting Yourself to Associates,Behavior at Conventions ,Accepting Criticism ,International Etiquette, Demonstrating Leadership ,Cross-Cultural Etiquette ,Working in a Cubicle ,

    Career Standard 2

    HUM-FS-2 Define food science and explore careers in food science.

    2.1 Define the study of food science and summarize how food products and processing methods have changed in modern history due to contributions of food scientists.

    2.2 Describe the history of the development of food and food systems emphasizing the transition from hunting and gathering to farming and then to market-based societies.

    2.3 Analyze how studying food science can benefit one in the future.

    2.4 Evaluate and list careers in food science and list the educational requirements.


    Career Standard 3 HUM-FS-3

    Investigate how and why scientific evaluation of foods is conducted.

    3.1 Identify physical, physicochemical, and chemical techniques used for assessing food quality.

    3.2 Define sensory evaluation, identify the qualities that make-up the sensory characteristics of food, and explain how taste, aroma and the mouth feel sensations combined to give food their flavor.

    3.3 Explain what sensory evaluation panels do and conduct a sensory panel using appropriate controls and quantify and analyze the data.

    3.4 Describe the role of science in the development of new food products and the use of the scientific method.

    3.5 Identify equipment found in the food science laboratory and how to properly and safely use it.


    Career Standard  4

    HUM-FS-4 Explore the basic chemistry concepts of food science.


    4.1 Define and describe the parts of an atom.

    4.2 Define matter and compare and contrast substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures (homogenous and heterogeneous).

    4.3 Recognize chemical symbols on the periodic table for common elements found in food and their role as the building blocks for compounds in food.

    4.4 Describe the formation of compounds via ionic and covalent bonding and the representation of the reactions in balanced chemical equations for simple compounds such as salt and water.

    4.5 Differentiate between organic and inorganic compounds and classify the major food constituents as organic (carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins) or inorganic (water, minerals).

    4.6 Identify the classes of organic compounds important in food (hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids and amines) and the characterizing features of their structural formulas.

    4.7 Define and differentiate between chemical and physical changes during food preparation and preservation. 


    Career Standard 5

    HUM-FS-5 Observe how energy works in food preparation and preservation.


    5.1 Explain and demonstrate how heat is transferred via conduction, convection and radiation.

    5.2 Compare the effect of various temperatures on rates of chemical and physical reactions.


    Career Standard 6

    HUM-FS-6 Examine why water and acidity are important factors in food preparation and preservation.

    6.1 Explain the importance of water as a food constituent and explain the relationship between the molecular structure of water and the functional properties of water (melting point, boiling point, role as a solvent and disperser, heat transfer medium).

    6.2 Describe and demonstrate the functions and identify factors that alter the functional properties of water (addition of solutes such as salt and sugar; atmospheric pressure).

    6.3 Describe the three states of water and the transition between states, (i.e. phase changes).

    6.4 Define and differentiate between water content and water activity and relate their importance to food preparation/preservation and storage using representative examples.

    6.5 List the common sources of water and the common contaminants.

    6.6 Define acid, base and salt, and identify sensory properties and roles in determining the quality characteristics (color, flavor, texture) and safety of food.

    6.7 Discuss ionization, using water as an example, and the relationship to the formation of acids and bases.

    6.8 Describe the pH scale and demonstrate how to measure pH.


    Career Standard 7

    HUM-FS-7 Summarize why carbohydrates are important in food preparation, preservation, and the nutritional impact on diets.

    7.1 Identify the functions of carbohydrates.

    7.2 Define and identify the functions of simple and complex carbohydrates, define monosaccharides and disaccharides, and identify the role and function of sugars in food products.

    7.3 Compare and contrast starches and non-starch-based polysaccharides and the role as food ingredients.


    Career Standard 8

    HUM-FS-8 Summarize why lipids are important in food preparation and preservation and the nutritional impact they have on diet.

    8.1 Identify fats present in food and differentiate between triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols and stanols. 8.2 Describe the structure of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    8.3 Identify and compare the functional properties of triglycerides classified as monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated and trans and list the advantages and disadvantages of their use in food preparation. 8.4 Examine the functions of lipids in food preparation and analyze the nutritional impact of lipids in the diet.

    8.5 Describe mono and diglycerides and phospholipids and their function as emulsifiers in food products.

    8.6 List and describe the types and causes of fat degradation and mechanisms used in the control.


    Career Standard 9

    HUM-FS-9 Summarize why proteins are important in food preparation and preservation and the nutritional impact they have on diet.

    9.1 Describe the chemical structure and organization of proteins.

    9.2 Describe the functional roles of protein in food products.

    9.3 Explain what happens during the denaturation of protein and illustrate how the process occurs using acids, enzymes and salts and mechanical action.

    9.4 Explain coagulation and apply basic principles of the chemistry to prepare high-protein foods such as eggs, milk and meat products.

    9.5 Define enzyme, including the nomenclature and mechanism of action, identify factors that control enzymatic activity and discuss examples of positive and negative enzymatic effects in food products.


    Career Standard 10

    HUM-FS-10 Investigate the sources, and impact of food formulations, preparation and preservation on food constituents important to health.

    10.1 Differentiate between nutrient and phytochemical and indicate the role of each in promoting health.

    10.2 List the key vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals present in food and identify foods that are major sources of each food constituent and their role in promoting health.

    10.3 Define enrichment/fortification, list ideal characteristics of the food fortified or enriched and discuss the role in meeting nutrient needs of the population.

    10.4 Differentiate between availability and bioavailability.

    10.5 Explain the impact of food preparation, food processing and preservation methods on nutrient value and bioavailability of phytochemicals.

    10.6 Define functional foods and explore types of functional foods currently in the marketplace and the potential to impact health.


    Career Standard 11

    HUM-FS-11 Investigate the reasons for the use of food additives and food analogs in food preparation and in processed products.

    11.1 Define food additives, discuss the various purposes of food additives in food products, and identify advantages and disadvantages of their use.

    11.2 Identify regulations governing the approval and use of food additives and the agencies involved.

    11.3 Explain the difference between natural and artificial additives.

    11.4 Define food analog and list the main reasons for their use.

    11.5 Explore the impact of the use of substitutes for fat, sugar, and salt on product quality characteristics and nutrient content. Conduct a sensory evaluation of foods with and without food additives/analogs and compile the data and examine the results.


    Career Standard 12

    HUM-FS-12 Analyze the principles of fermentation.

    12.1 List the reasons that food is fermented and identify common food products that result from fermentation. 12.2 Define probiotics and the relationship to fermented foods and the benefits for gut health.

    12.3 Differentiate among yeast, bacterial and mold fermentation and identify food products produced for each type of fermentation.

    12.4 List the factors that impact the growth of single-celled organisms.

    12.5 Describe the process of pickling and compare and contrast the use of fermentation versus the addition of vinegar to produce cucumber pickles.

    12.6 Describe the making of a fermented food product, such as vinegar, cheese, yogurt or chocolate.


    Career Standard 13

    HUM-FS-13 Investigate measures used to produce safe and wholesome food under sanitary conditions.


    13.1 Discuss the three major types of food contaminants: physical, chemical, and biological.

    13.2 Differentiate among food borne illness, food spoilage and food sanitation.

    13.3 List specific microbial organisms that can cause food-borne illness.

    13.4 Define toxin, pathogen and parasite and differentiate between food intoxication and food infection.

    13.5 Discuss sanitation and food handling and processing practices used to produce wholesome foods during the processing, preparation, consumption and storage of food.

    13.6 Describe the common causes of food spoilage and steps to reduce/prevent spoilage.

    13.7 Identify government agencies in the United States that regulate the food supply.


    Career Standard 14

    HUM-FS-14 Compare and contrast different food preservation methods and the resultant quality of preserved food.

    14.1 Describe and provide examples of the continuum of processed foods.

    14.2 Identify the major functions of packaging used for food products, differentiating between the functions of primary, secondary and tertiary packaging.

    14.3 Identify common types of packaging materials, and compare and contrast the properties of containers made from different packaging materials and selection criteria.

    14.4 Discuss reduced oxygen packaging and the effects on product quality and availability of products in the marketplace.

    14.5 Explain the importance of product pH and final water activity of the processed product to preservation of foods.

    14.6 Examine the factors to be considered in the selection and use of successful thermalprocessing techniques (canning, freezing and pasteurization) and describe commercial thermal-processing methods.

    14.7 Examine the processes of curing, dehydration, freeze-drying, and extended shelf life of fresh products (refrigeration, modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation).

    14.8 Compare and contrast processes used for home and commercial preservation and evaluate resulting quality of the products preserved using different commercial and/or home methods.