The Physical Science Georgia Standards of Excellence are designed to continue student investigations of the physical sciences that began in grades K-8, and provide students the necessary skills to have a richer knowledge base in physical science. The standards in this course are designed as a survey of the core ideas in the physical sciences. Those core ideas will be studied in more depth during in the chemistry and physics courses. The physical science standards include abstract concepts such as the conceptualization of the structure of atoms and the role they play in determining the properties of materials, motion and forces, the conservation of energy and matter, wave behavior, electricity, and the relationship between electricity and magnetism. The idea of radioactive decay is limited to the understanding of whole half-lives and how a constant proportional rate of decay is consistent with declining measures that only gradually approach to zero. Students investigate physical science concepts through the study of phenomena, experiences in laboratory settings, and field work.The standards are a required minimum set of expectations that show proficiency in science. However, instruction can extend beyond these minimum expectations to meet student needs. At the same time, these standards set a maximum expectation on what will be assessed by the Georgia Milestones Assessment System.